Medien in der Kategorie „Nikita Khrushchev“. Folgende 36 Dateien sind in dieser Kategorie, von 36 insgesamt. Nikita Khrushchev. Sprache; Beobachten · Bearbeiten. Weiterleitung nach: Nikita Sergejewitsch Chruschtschow. Abgerufen von. Nikita Sergejewitsch Chruschtschow war ein sowjetischer Politiker. Chruschtschow war von 19Parteichef der KPdSU und zudem von 19als Vorsitzender des Ministerrats Regierungschef der Sowjetunion. Er galt als kluger.
Nikita Khrushchev MDR Zeitreise
Nikita Sergejewitsch Chruschtschow war ein sowjetischer Politiker. Chruschtschow war von 19Parteichef der KPdSU und zudem von 19als Vorsitzender des Ministerrats Regierungschef der Sowjetunion. Er galt als kluger. Ein Jahr vor seinem Tod erschienen seine Memoiren Khrushchev remembers, deren Autorschaft er jedoch aus Parteirücksichten leugnete. Sein Sohn Sergei. Nikita Khrushchev. Sprache; Beobachten · Bearbeiten. Weiterleitung nach: Nikita Sergejewitsch Chruschtschow. Abgerufen von. Medien in der Kategorie „Nikita Khrushchev“. Folgende 36 Dateien sind in dieser Kategorie, von 36 insgesamt. Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament | Khrushchev, Nikita | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist, PublicAffairs, ISBN Laurent, Coumel (), «The scientist. Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev: Volume 2: Reformer, | Khrushchev, Sergei | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand.
Nikita Khrushchev. Sprache; Beobachten · Bearbeiten. Weiterleitung nach: Nikita Sergejewitsch Chruschtschow. Abgerufen von. War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist, PublicAffairs, ISBN Laurent, Coumel (), «The scientist. Translations in context of "Nikita Khrushchev" in English-German from Reverso Context: Nikita Khrushchev was at the height of his powers. Nikita Chruschtschow nur unter etwas anderen Phrasen vertrat. Oktober Thelma (2019). Results: Als Folge einer Parteireform und Stadttheater Heide Annäherung an die Bundesrepublik Deutschland verlor er viele Peter Aerts Anhänger, wurde von Leonid Breschnew gestürzt und aus dem Zentralkomitee ausgeschlossen. Elapsed time: ms. Today we live in a world where the son of Nikita Khrushchev has chosen to become an American citizen. Nikolai Bulganin. Seine Versprechungen von Rekordernten in der Landwirtschaft stellten sich jedes Shrek 1 aufs Martin Wernicke als unerfüllbar heraus. Commons Wikiquote. The American president, John F. The following Monsters Inc, the failed U. What I had in mind was the outlook for the development of human Mdr Thüringen Live. Eisenhower on the Second Berlin Crisis. Enver Hoxha Ramiz Alia. After the liberation of Ukraine inKhrushchev reassumed control of Ukraine as first secretary of the Ukrainian party organization.
Khrushchev was not delivering an address at the time, nor standing at the assembly podium ask. Central Intelligence Agency here. Whether you like it or not history is on our side.
We will bury you. Over the years, Khrushchev issued a number of explanations attempting to clarify his statements. What I had in mind was the outlook for the development of human society.
Socialism will inevitably succeed capitalism. A report by the New York Times from July 10, , had already debunked the use of any such list by left-wing groups.
The list included in the social media post appears to be another iteration of this manual. Reuters recently debunked a claim attributing the creation of this list to the American community activist Saul Alinsky here.
This led to a slow birth of a dissident movement. Yet Khrushchev also launched bold but unattainable agricultural goals by increasing production in areas not suitable for crops.
He relaxed production on military goods and increased production of consumer goods only to impose cutbacks during the arms race. During much of the Cold War, Khrushchev could be charming, playfully combative or belligerent, depending on his audience.
Vice President Richard Nixon over Soviet versus American innovation in home appliances, among other major disagreements. Relations between the Soviet Union and the United States cooled considerably after the downing of an American U-2 spy plane in The following year, the failed U.
In early , Khrushchev had devised a plan to place nuclear missiles in Cuba. In October, the United States detected the missiles being installed and placed a naval blockade around the island nation.
After 13 days of intense negotiations, the crisis ended with Russia agreeing to remove the missiles.
Though the agreement avoided a nuclear showdown, much to the relief of most of the world, senior Communist Party officials saw it as a loss of prestige for the Soviet Union.
We strive for accuracy and fairness. Kalinovka was a peasant village; Khrushchev's teacher, Lydia Shevchenko, later stated that she had never seen a village as poor as Kalinovka had been.
He was schooled for a total of four years, part in the village parochial school and part under Shevchenko's tutelage in Kalinovka's state school.
According to Khrushchev in his memoirs, Shevchenko was a freethinker who upset the villagers by not attending church, and when her brother visited, he gave the boy books which had been banned by the Imperial Government.
In , Sergei Khrushchev moved to the Donbas city of Yuzovka now Donetsk , Ukraine ; fourteen-year-old Nikita followed later that year, while Ksenia Khrushcheva and her daughter came after.
Upon completing that apprenticeship, the teenage Khrushchev was hired by a factory. When World War I broke out in , Khrushchev was exempt from conscription because he was a skilled metal worker.
He was employed by a workshop that serviced ten mines, and he was involved in several strikes that demanded higher pay, better working conditions, and an end to the war.
In , they had a daughter, Yulia, and in , a son, Leonid. Khrushchev was elected to the worker's council or soviet in Rutchenkovo, and in May he became its chairman.
His biographer, William Taubman , suggests that Khrushchev's delay in affiliating himself with the Bolsheviks was because he felt closer to the Mensheviks who prioritised economic progress, whereas the Bolsheviks sought political power.
In March , as the Bolshevik government concluded a separate peace with the Central Powers , the Germans occupied the Donbas and Khrushchev fled to Kalinovka.
In late or early he was mobilized into the Red Army as a political commissar. The young commissar came under fire many times,  though many of the war stories he would tell in later life dealt more with his and his troops' cultural awkwardness, rather than with combat.
The wars had caused widespread devastation and famine, and one of the victims of the hunger and disease was Khrushchev's wife, Yefrosinia, who died of typhus in Kalinovka while Khrushchev was in the army.
The commissar returned for the funeral and, loyal to his Bolshevik principles , refused to allow his wife's coffin to enter the local church.
With the only way into the churchyard through the church, he had the coffin lifted and passed over the fence into the burial ground, shocking the village.
Through the intervention of a friend, Khrushchev was assigned in as assistant director for political affairs for the Rutchenkovo mine in the Donbas region, where he had previously worked.
At that time, the movement was split by Lenin 's New Economic Policy , which allowed for some measure of private enterprise and was seen as an ideological retreat by some Bolsheviks.
He helped restart the machines key parts and papers had been removed by the pre-Soviet mineowners and he wore his old mine outfit for inspection tours.
Khrushchev was highly successful at the Rutchenkovo mine, and in mid he was offered the directorship of the nearby Pastukhov mine.
However, he refused the offer, seeking to be assigned to the newly established technical college tekhnikum in Yuzovka, though his superiors were reluctant to let him go.
As he had only four years of formal schooling, he applied to the training program rabfak attached to the tekhnikum that was designed to bring undereducated students to high-school level, a prerequisite for entry into the tekhnikum.
He briefly joined supporters of Leon Trotsky against those of Joseph Stalin over the question of party democracy. Khrushchev's studies were aided by Nina Petrovna Kukharchuk , a well-educated Party organizer and daughter of well-to-do Ukrainian peasants, according to some sources.
The two lived together as husband and wife for the rest of Khrushchev's life, though they never registered their marriage.
They had three children together: daughter Rada was born in , son Sergei in and daughter Elena in In mid, Khrushchev was appointed Party secretary of the Petrovo-Marinsky raikom , or district, near Stalino.
Khrushchev met Lazar Kaganovich as early as In , Kaganovich became Party head in Ukraine  and Khrushchev, falling under his patronage,  was rapidly promoted.
He was appointed second in command of the Stalino party apparatus in late Within nine months his superior, Konstantin Moiseyenko, was ousted, which, according to Taubman, was due to Khrushchev's instigation.
In , Khrushchev again sought to further his education, following Kaganovich now in the Kremlin as a close associate of Stalin to Moscow and enrolling in the Stalin Industrial Academy.
Khrushchev never completed his studies there, but his career in the Party flourished. By , Khrushchev had become second in command, behind Kaganovich, of the Moscow city Party organization , and in , he became Party leader for the city  and a member of the Party's Central Committee.
In his memoirs, Khrushchev stated that Alliluyeva spoke well of him to her husband. His biographer, William Tompson, downplays the possibility, stating that Khrushchev was too low in the Party hierarchy to enjoy Stalin's patronage, and that if influence was brought to bear on Khrushchev's career at this stage, it was by Kaganovich.
While head of the Moscow city organization, Khrushchev superintended construction of the Moscow Metro , a highly expensive undertaking, with Kaganovich in overall charge.
Faced with an already-announced opening date of 7 November , Khrushchev took considerable risks in the construction and spent much of his time down in the tunnels.
When the inevitable accidents did occur, they were depicted as heroic sacrifices in a great cause.
The Metro did not open until 1 May , but Khrushchev received the Order of Lenin for his role in its construction. Stalin's office records show meetings at which Khrushchev was present as early as The two increasingly built a good relationship.
Khrushchev greatly admired the dictator and treasured informal meetings with him and invitations to Stalin's dacha , while Stalin felt warm affection for his young subordinate.
Beginning in , Stalin began a campaign of political repression known as the Great Purge , during which millions of people were executed or sent to the Gulag.
Central to this campaign were the Moscow Trials , a series of show trials of the purged top leaders of the party and the military.
In , as the trials proceeded, Khrushchev expressed his vehement support:. Everyone who rejoices in the successes achieved in our country, the victories of our party led by the great Stalin, will find only one word suitable for the mercenary, fascist dogs of the Trotskyite- Zinovievite gang.
That word is execution. Khrushchev assisted in the purge of many friends and colleagues in Moscow oblast. Party leaders were given numerical quotas of "enemies" to be turned in and arrested.
Of the arrestees, according to Khrushchev, 8, deserved execution. The dictator took the confession in his stride, and, after initially advising Khrushchev to keep it quiet, suggested that Khrushchev tell his tale to the Moscow party conference.
Khrushchev did so, to applause, and was immediately reelected to his post. Stalin told Khrushchev of the accusation personally, looking him in the eye and awaiting his response.
Khrushchev speculated in his memoirs that had Stalin doubted his reaction, he would have been categorized as an enemy of the people then and there.
The high ranks of the Party were not immune; the Central Committee of Ukraine was so devastated that it could not convene a quorum.
After Khrushchev's arrival, the pace of arrests accelerated. Almost all government officials and Red Army commanders were replaced.
Biographer William Taubman suggested that because Khrushchev was again unsuccessfully denounced while in Kyiv, he must have known that some of the denunciations were not true and that innocent people were suffering.
But we must not allow a single honest Bolshevik to be harmed. We must conduct a struggle against slanderers. When Soviet troops, pursuant to the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact , invaded the eastern portion of Poland on 17 September , Khrushchev accompanied the troops at Stalin's direction.
A large number of ethnic Ukrainians lived in the invaded area, much of which today forms the western portion of Ukraine. Many inhabitants therefore initially welcomed the invasion, though they hoped that they would eventually become independent.
Khrushchev's role was to ensure that the occupied areas voted for union with the USSR. Through a combination of propaganda, deception as to what was being voted for, and outright fraud, the Soviets ensured that the assemblies elected in the new territories would unanimously petition for union with the USSR.
Stalin used Khrushchev to keep commanders on a tight leash, while the commanders sought to have him influence Stalin. Handicapped by orders from Stalin that under no circumstances should the city be abandoned, the Red Army was soon encircled by the Germans.
According to Marshal Georgi Zhukov , writing some years after Khrushchev fired and disgraced him in , Khrushchev persuaded Stalin not to evacuate troops from Kyiv.
But let me return to the enemy breakthrough in the Kiev area, the encirclement of our group, and the destruction of the 37th Army. Later, the Fifth Army also perished All of this was senseless, and from the military point of view, a display of ignorance, incompetence, and illiteracy.
There you have the result of not taking a step backward. We were unable to save these troops because we didn't withdraw them, and as a result we simply lost them.
And yet it was possible to allow this not to happen. In , Khrushchev was on the Southwest Front, and he and Timoshenko proposed a massive counteroffensive in the Kharkov area.
The Germans, however, had deduced that the Soviets were likely to attack at Kharkov , and set a trap. Beginning on 12 May , the Soviet offensive initially appeared successful, but within five days the Germans had driven deep into the Soviet flanks, and the Red Army troops were in danger of being cut off.
Stalin refused to halt the offensive, and the Red Army divisions were soon encircled by the Germans. While Stalin hinted at arresting and executing Khrushchev, he allowed the commissar to return to the front by sending him to Stalingrad.
Khrushchev reached the Stalingrad Front in August , soon after the start of the battle for the city. He proposed a counterattack , only to find that Zhukov and other generals had already planned Operation Uranus , a plan to break out from Soviet positions and encircle and destroy the Germans; it was being kept secret.
Before Uranus was launched, Khrushchev spent much time checking on troop readiness and morale, interrogating Nazi prisoners, and recruiting some for propaganda purposes.
Soon after Stalingrad, Khrushchev met with personal tragedy, as his son Leonid , a fighter pilot, was apparently shot down and killed in action on 11 March The circumstances of Leonid's death remain obscure and controversial,  as none of his fellow fliers stated that they witnessed him being shot down, nor was his plane found or body recovered.
As a result, Leonid's fate has been the subject of considerable speculation. One theory has Leonid surviving the crash and collaborating with the Germans, and when he was recaptured by the Soviets, Stalin ordering him shot despite Nikita Khrushchev pleading for his life.
Khrushchev biographer Taubman speculates that this omission was most likely to avoid the possibility of being seen as complicit in the death of the son of a Politburo member.
Leonid's daughter, Yulia, was raised by Nikita Khrushchev and his wife. After Uranus forced the Germans into retreat, Khrushchev served in other fronts of the war.
He was attached to Soviet troops at the Battle of Kursk , in July , which turned back the last major German offensive on Soviet soil.
He was appointed Premier of the Ukrainian SSR in addition to his earlier party post, one of the rare instances in which the Ukrainian party and civil leader posts were held by one person.
According to Khrushchev biographer William Tompson, it is difficult to assess Khrushchev's war record, since he most often acted as part of a military council, and it is not possible to know the extent to which he influenced decisions, rather than signing off on the orders of military officers.
However, Tompson points to the fact that the few mentions of Khrushchev in military memoirs published during the Brezhnev era were generally favorable, at a time when it was "barely possible to mention Khrushchev in print in any context".
Almost all of Ukraine had been occupied by the Germans, and Khrushchev returned to his domain in late to find devastation. Ukraine's industry had been destroyed, and agriculture faced critical shortages.
Even though millions of Ukrainians had been taken to Germany as workers or prisoners of war, there was insufficient housing for those who remained.
Khrushchev sought to reconstruct Ukraine, but also desired to complete the interrupted work of imposing the Soviet system on it, though he hoped that the purges of the s would not recur.
He made a short visit to his birthplace of Kalinovka, finding a starving population, with only a third of the men who had joined the Red Army having returned.
Khrushchev did what he could to assist his hometown. In an effort to increase agricultural production, the kolkhozes collective farms were empowered to expel residents who were not pulling their weight.
Khrushchev viewed this policy as very effective, and recommended its adoption elsewhere to Stalin. While Khrushchev hoped to accomplish this by , lack of resources and armed resistance by partisans slowed the process.
The war years of and had seen poor harvests, and saw intense drought strike Ukraine and Western Russia. The inevitable starvation was largely confined to remote rural regions, and was little noticed outside the USSR.
When letters to Stalin had no effect, Khrushchev flew to Moscow and made his case in person. Stalin finally gave Ukraine limited food aid, and money to set up free soup kitchens.
Soon after Kaganovich arrived in Kyiv, Khrushchev fell ill, and was barely seen until September In his memoirs, Khrushchev indicates he had pneumonia; some biographers have theorized that Khrushchev's illness was entirely political, out of fear that his loss of position was the first step towards downfall and demise.
Once Khrushchev was able to get out of bed, he and his family took their first vacation since before the war, to a beachfront resort in Latvia.
Khrushchev's final years in Ukraine were generally peaceful, with industry recovering,  Soviet forces overcoming the partisans, and and seeing better-than-expected harvests.
These sometimes backfired, however: a tax on private livestock holdings led to peasants slaughtering their stock. He completed only one such town before his December return to Moscow; he dedicated it to Stalin as a 70th birthday present.
I'll say that the Ukrainian people treated me well. I recall warmly the years I spent there. This was a period full of responsibilities, but pleasant because it brought satisfaction But far be it from me to inflate my significance.
The entire Ukrainian people was exerting great efforts I attribute Ukraine's successes to the Ukrainian people as a whole.
I won't elaborate further on this theme, but in principle it's very easy to demonstrate. I'm Russian myself, and I don't want to offend the Russians.
Khrushchev attributed his recall to Moscow to mental disorder on the part of Stalin , who feared conspiracies in Moscow matching those which the ruler believed to have occurred in the fabricated Leningrad case , in which many of that city's Party officials had been falsely accused of treason.
Khrushchev biographer Taubman suggests that Stalin most likely recalled Khrushchev to Moscow to balance the influence of Georgy Malenkov and security chief Lavrentiy Beria , who were widely seen as Stalin's heirs.
At this time, the ageing leader rarely called Politburo meetings. Instead, much of the high-level work of government took place at dinners hosted by Stalin.
These sessions, which Beria, Malenkov, Khrushchev, Kaganovich, Kliment Voroshilov , Vyacheslav Molotov , and Nikolai Bulganin , who comprised Stalin's inner circle, attended, began with showings of cowboy movies favoured by Stalin.
On one occasion, Stalin had Khrushchev, then aged almost sixty, dance a traditional Ukrainian dance. Khrushchev did so, later stating, "When Stalin says dance, a wise man dances.
In , Khrushchev began a large-scale housing program for Moscow. A large part of the housing was in the form of five- or six-story apartment buildings, which became ubiquitous throughout the Soviet Union; many remain in use today.
This resulted in farms that were too large for one chairman to manage effectively. The periodical quickly published a note stating that Khrushchev's speech was merely a proposal, not policy.
In April, the Politburo disavowed the agro-town proposal. Khrushchev feared that Stalin would remove him from office, but the leader mocked Khrushchev, then allowed the episode to pass.
On 1 March , Stalin suffered a massive stroke, apparently on rising after sleep. Stalin had left orders not to be disturbed, and it was twelve hours until his condition was discovered.
Even as terrified doctors attempted treatment, Khrushchev and his colleagues engaged in intense discussion as to the new government. On 5 March, Stalin died.
As Khrushchev and other high officials stood weeping by Stalin's bedside, Beria raced from the room, shouting for his car.
Stalin called everyone who didn't agree with him an "enemy of the people. As a result, several hundred thousand honest people perished. Everyone lived in fear in those days.
Everyone expected that at any moment there would be a knock on the door in the middle of the night and that knock on the door would prove fatal This was utter and complete arbitrariness.
And now is all this to be forgiven and forgotten? On 6 March , Stalin's death was announced, as was the new leadership.
Malenkov was the new Chairman of the Council of Ministers, with Beria who consolidated his hold over the security agencies , Kaganovich, Bulganin, and former Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov as first vice-chairmen.
Stalin's funeral was conducted on 9 March. Those members of the Presidium of the Central Committee who had been recently promoted by Stalin were demoted.
Khrushchev was relieved of his duties as Party head for Moscow to concentrate on unspecified duties in the Party's Central Committee.
However, Malenkov resigned from the secretariat of the Central Committee on 14 March. The major beneficiary was Khrushchev. His name appeared atop a revised list of secretaries—indicating that he was now in charge of the party.
After Stalin's death, Beria launched a number of reforms. According to Khrushchev biographer William Taubman , "unparalleled in his cynicism, he [Beria] didn't let ideology stand in his way.
Had he prevailed, he would almost certainly have exterminated his colleagues, if only to prevent them from liquidating him.
In the meantime, however, his burst of reforms rivaled Khrushchev's and in some ways even Gorbachev's thirty five years later. Their campaign against Beria was aided by fears that Beria was planning a military coup,  and, according to Khrushchev in his memoirs, by the conviction that "Beria is getting his knives ready for us.
This allowed Khrushchev and Malenkov to arrest Beria as Beria belatedly discovered he had lost control of Ministry of Interior troops and the troops of the Kremlin guard.
Beria was tried in secret, and executed in December with five of his close associates. The execution of Beria proved to be the last time the loser of a top-level Soviet power struggle paid with his life.
The power struggle in the Presidium was not resolved by the elimination of Beria. Malenkov's power was in the central state apparatus, which he sought to extend through reorganizing the government, giving it additional power at the expense of the Party.
He also sought public support by lowering retail prices and lowering the level of bond sales to citizens, which had long been effectively obligatory.
Khrushchev, on the other hand, with his power base in the Party, sought to both strengthen the Party and his position within it.
While, under the Soviet system, the Party was to be preeminent, it had been greatly drained of power by Stalin, who had given much of that power to himself and to the Politburo later, to the Presidium.
Khrushchev saw that with the Presidium in conflict, the Party and its Central Committee might again become powerful. Khrushchev presented himself as a down-to-earth activist prepared to take up any challenge, contrasting with Malenkov who, though sophisticated, came across as colourless.
While the scheme eventually became a tremendous disaster for Soviet agriculture, it was initially successful.
As Soviet prosecutors investigated the atrocities of Stalin's last years, including the Leningrad case , they came across evidence of Malenkov's involvement.
Beginning in February , Khrushchev replaced Malenkov in the seat of honour at Presidium meetings; in June, Malenkov ceased to head the list of Presidium members, which was thereafter organized in alphabetical order.
Khrushchev's influence continued to increase, winning the allegiance of local party heads, and with his nominee heading the KGB.
At a Central Committee meeting in January , Malenkov was accused of involvement in atrocities, and the committee passed a resolution accusing him of involvement in the Leningrad case, and of facilitating Beria's climb to power.
At a meeting of the mostly ceremonial Supreme Soviet the following month, Malenkov was demoted in favour of Bulganin, to the surprise of Western observers.
According to Khrushchev biographer William Tompson, "Khrushchev's position as first among the members of the collective leadership was now beyond any reasonable doubt.
The post-Stalin battle for political control reshaped foreign-policy. There was more realism and less ideological abstraction when confronted by the European and Middle Eastern situations.
Khrushchev's "secret speech" attack on Stalin in was a signal for abandoning Stalinist precepts, and looking at new options, including more involvement in the Middle East.
Khrushchev in power did not moderate his personality—he remained unpredictable, and was emboldened by the spectacular successes in space.
Khrushchev's policy was still restrained by the need to retain the support of the Presidium and to placate the inarticulate but restive Soviet masses who were thrilled by Sputnik, but demanded a higher standard of living on the ground as well.